Video Details

Anatomy Physiology Series

Availability information for this program

Episodes:

  • Acids, Bases, and Ph

    Beginning with a description of electrolytes and their formation in a process known as dissociation, this program explains the importance of electrolytes in body chemistry. Acids and bases, also electrolytes, are described with examples, including discussion of acids found or produced in the body. The ability of acids and bases to neutralize each other's properties is explained. Strong and weak classes of acids and bases are discussed. An explanation of pH values is provided, with both household product and body organ examples. The program concludes by describing the critical importance of pH balance in regulating almost all life-sustaining functions in the human body.

    Length: 00:05:46
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Action Potential Generation and Propagation

    This episode explains that rapid communication throughout the nervous system is made possible by the transmission of electrical signals called action potentials across the membranes of neurons. The surfaces of intracellular and extracellular membranes are described. The next focus is on the six phases of action potentials: resting potential, threshold, rising, falling, undershoot, and recovery. At the terminals, the action potentials trigger the release of neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft.

    Length: 00:04:15
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Active Transport Processes

    This episode explains that selective permeability regulates what can and cannot pass through the cell membrane. It describes active transport processes in which integral proteins move molecules across the plasma membrane at a rate determined by their concentration gradient. Active transport is also described as a way of utilizing chemical energy, usually in the form of ATP. It is noted that Active Transport can be further delineated into primary (uses ATP) and secondary (uses electrochemical gradient).

    Length: 00:03:04
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Anatomical Terms and Directions

    This episode explains that increased precision drives the use of specialized terms and language in most technical fields. In talking about the anatomy and physiology of the body, it seems like the discipline has a language all of its own. Many of the terms come from a Latin base and for those not familiar with Latin, sound like listening to a foreign language. With the use of these terms and language people can communicate the knowledge of the body more effectively. Some of the words denote orientation or direction while others refer to body cavities. There are thousands of words for describing the many other parts of the body. Whether it is names on street signs or highly trained professionals finding orientation in their jobs, there is a need for specialized language.

    Length: 00:03:00
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Axial Vs. Appendicular Skeleton

    This program explores the two components of the human skeleton: the axial skeleton (skull, spinal column and rib cage) and the appendicular skeleton (the pectoral and pelvic girdles along with their attached appendages). The main bones of each, and also their attachments, are described. The program ends with a brief comparison of differences between male and female skeletons.

    Length: 00:06:39
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Biomechanics of Musculo-Skeletal System

    The lever is one of the principal components of biomechanics, the application of the principles of physics, in particular, the principles of motion, to the human body. The program demonstrates the biomechanics of skeletal system movement which utilizes levers, fulcrums, and force (effort and load/resistance). Bones act as levers, joints serve as fulcrums, and skeletal muscles create motion. Resistance is applied by the weight of a body part or the weight of an object being acted upon. The three classes of levers are described, the distinctions being where the fulcrum, the load, and the applied force are located. All three classes of levers have an equivalent in the human body, although the first two are rare. Examples such as nodding the head (first class lever) and standing on the balls of the feet (second class lever) reinforce this concept. Third class levers, like those which permit weight-lifting, are the most common in the human body and are generally built for speed and range of motion.

    Length: 00:04:41
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Brain Structure and Function

    This program explores the brain, the mass that regulates and controls nearly everything humans do, both voluntary and involuntary. The brain is described as an organ of many cooperative functions, composed of billions of highly specialized cells called neurons and glia. The many parts of the brain are detailed, starting with the two cerebral hemispheres into which the brain is divided. The outer cortex of grey matter and inner white matter together make up the cerebrum. The cerebrum is further divided into four lobes, the locations and functions of which are each described. The communications link between the two hemispheres, called the corpus callosum, and the limbic system, located within the cerebrum, are described. The presentation also includes the brain stem, its parts and roles. The program concludes by explaining that the brain continues to rewire and change its circuitry throughout our lives.

    Length: 00:07:38
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Case Study - Fractures and Bone Repair

    The program follows an orthopedic surgeon as he discusses orthopedic problems including muscle and tendon injuries and bone fractures. Fractures may heal in part on their own but still require medical intervention. He discusses the natural healing process and interventions that may be required, such as surgery, immobilization and motion treatments, including an overview of how treatment decisions are reached. In a clinical case study, X-rays are shown detailing surgical treatment for a competitive cyclist who was hit by a car which resulted in a segmental leg fracture. The program concludes with X-rays taken two months later showing evidence of the healing process as bone is consolidating with calcium being laid down.

    Length: 00:05:58
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Case Study - Skin Cancer

    Skin cancer is on the rise due to excessive sun exposure. The program presents a case study of a patient with basal cell carcinoma. It defines the characteristics of the disease and shows how it is treated by Mohs micrographic surgery. Melanoma, the most lethal form of skin cancer, is contrasted with basal cell carcinoma, the most treatable and curable form of skin cancer.

    Length: 00:07:32
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Cell Life Cycle: The Cell Division

    The cell life cycle is defined as its sequence of growth, DNA replication, and cell division. In the Interphase stage the cell performs basic functions in preparation for cell division. In cell division, two processes occur: mitosis or division of the nucleus, and cytokinesis or division of the cytoplasm which in turn contains the organelles.

    Length: 00:04:15
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Cell Life Cycle: The Interphase

    The program illustrates that the cell cycle is a series of events that takes place in a cell culminating in its division and duplication. The processes are generally divided into two stages, interphase and cell division. Interphase is the part of cell's life cycle when it does not divide. In this first major period of the cell's life cycle, the cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities. There are 3 parts or phases that occur during the Interphase cycle: G1, Synthesis and G2. These phases are summarized in a pie graph detailing the functions and the specific terminology used to describe these functions.

    Length: 00:03:32
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Cell Organization and Specialization

    The program introduces the notion of specialization and compartmentalization in a non-biological context, as it applies to the cell. It looks at the example of a typical modern day business comprised of several different departments each of which serves a very specific and distinct function. Each department is an entity unto itself, but all work together for a common purpose. In much the same way, organelles function within cells in the human body and have many compartments, for example, the nucleus, DNA, and ribosomes where many metabolic activities take place. The dynamic graphics clearly lay out the parallels between the cell's functions and those of the modern day business' functions.

    Length: 00:03:38
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Cellular Metabolism

    The episode introduces and defines metabolism as the sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in an organism. In much the same way that power plants transform raw energy sources into useable electric power, cells process and transform nuclear molecules into a form of energy that allows cellular functions to be carried out. Cellular metabolism takes place in two processes, catabolism and anabolism, with ATP as the energy currency acting as a bridge between catabolism and anabolism.

    Length: 00:04:35
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Cellular Respiration

    Cellular respiration is defined as the process which breaks down energy rich molecules from food, into carbon dioxide and water with ATP as a by-product. ATP is the form of energy that cells use to do their work and producing it is the principle function of cellular respiration. Two types of cellular respiration are discussed: aerobic (needs oxygen) and anaerobic (doesn't need oxygen). The stages of cellular respiration are also described in detail. These include Glycolysis, the Krebs' Cycle, and Electron Transport Phosphorylation (chemiosmosis).

    Length: 00:03:35
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Chemical Bonds

    The program describes the energy relationship that involves the interactions between the electrons of the reacting atoms. The properties and behaviors of the valence shell of an atom are described. Examples of the types of chemical bonds are provided, with a focus on the hydrogen-oxygen bond in a water molecule. The program concludes by comparing a single weak hydrogen bond with the collective strength of multiple hydrogen bonds in the surface tension of water.

    Length: 00:03:43
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Clinical Applications: Stem Cell Research

    The program discusses the challenges of stem cell research and the development of effective stem cell therapies. The unique importance of stem cells is highlighted, with embryonic stem cells able to develop many cell types during early life and growth, and adult stem cells capable of replenishing other cells. Bone marrow transplants are identified as the most common use of stem cells to date, although stem cell treatments will eventually be used to cure injuries and diseases that currently have no effective therapies. The advantages and disadvantages of both embryonic and adult stem cells in clinical applications and research are detailed. Induced pluripotent stem cells are described as one of the most promising areas of stem cell research because these cells will allow scientists to avoid the ethical issues surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells. The program concludes with a discussion of the challenges that lie ahead in the development of effective stem cell therapy.

    Length: 00:08:37
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Compositions of Matter and the Human Body

    An overview of the composition of matter is provided, focusing on elements, atoms and atomic structure. The makeup of elements is explained. A graphical demonstration of the size of an atom is provided. The three types of particles that make up atoms are described. Distinctions between atoms, such as ions and isotopes, are explained. The program closes with a presentation of the most prominent elements that make up the human body.

    Length: 00:04:26
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Connective Tissues

    The program introduces the most diverse and abundant of the tissue types, connective tissue. The functions performed by connective tissues are described. These include physical protection, support, the provision of a structural framework, the binding of structures, the storage of fat, the transport of nutrients, and immune protection. The composition of connective tissue is described and contrasted with that of epithelial tissue. Connective tissue classifications and sub-classifications are explored in depth. The program concludes by noting that the human body is quite literally held together by a complex and efficient system of connective tissue of extraordinary diversity and a remarkable degree of structural, functional and pathologic intricacy.

    Length: 00:11:30
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Development of Bone

    The program describes the process of bone formation, (both development and remodeling) known as ossification. The two types, intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification are presented and the processes described in detail. The type of bone being formed - flat or long - determines which process is utilized. Examples of these two types of bone are provided. The program ends with a description of the point at which bone growth stops in adulthood - when epiphyseal cartilage plates are completely ossified.

    Length: 00:05:57
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Enzyme Function

    The process of fermenting wine with yeast enzymes is used to demonstrate the role of basic chemistry in everyday life. Enzymes are defined and examples show how enzymes catalyze millions of reactions every minute in the human body. The three types of enzymes are described: digestive, metabolic and food enzymes. Some examples of the types of enzymes and their uses are provided. The program closes with a graphical sequence demonstrating the function of enzymes.

    Length: 00:03:33
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Epithelial Tissues

    This episode focuses on the form and function of epithelial tissues, which exist virtually everywhere in the human body. Common and less common shapes of epithelial tissues are described. The program concludes with a summary of the diversity of epithelial tissue and the importance to human health of optimal functioning of this protective and complex covering.

    Length: 00:06:52
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Excitation Contraction Coupling

    This episode explores muscle contraction, demonstrating that the basic action of any skeletal muscle takes place over a series of steps initiated when the brain sends a nervous impulse called an action potential. With a focus on the sarcomere, the episode demonstrates that this basic unit of a muscle is comprised of two types of filaments, myosin and actin, which interact with one another. The exploration continues with descriptions of the proteins Tropomyosin and Troponin which are molecular switches that trigger contractions. DHP receptors are also discussed.

    Length: 00:03:49
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Excitation Contraction Coupling: Cardiac Muscle

    This program features a comparison and contrast of cardiac muscle tissue and skeletal muscle tissue. It discusses the role of calcium in muscle contracting processes, with a focus on the positive and negative inotropic effects that alter the energy during contraction.

    Length: 00:02:24
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Excitation Contraction Coupling: Smooth Muscle

    This program discusses the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue which is found in the walls of hollow organs such as blood vessels and organs of the digestive track. The contraction of smooth muscle is regulated by the autonomic nerve system and local chemical signals. To develop force, smooth muscle cells, like skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues, rely on crossbridge cycling between actin and myosin.

    Length: 00:02:49
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Function of Bone Storage

    The program explores bone as a storage mechanism for calcium and other minerals the body needs. Two hormones that help maintain the proper calcium balance between bone and blood - calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) - are discussed. The functioning of these hormones in maintaining the proper balance is based on a homeostatic mechanism known as negative feedback, illustrated by comparing this mechanism to a thermostat in a home which maintains a normal temperature balance. The operations of calcitonin and PTH and demonstrated, highlighting their roles in maintaining balance between bone and blood calcium. It is noted that recent research shows that the parathyroid glands and PTH play a more significant role in calcium homeostasis than does calcitonin. The program ends by presenting osteoporosis as an example of the danger of not maintaining a proper balance between bone and blood calcium.

    Length: 00:04:09
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Gene Expression

    The episode explains that the human body follows a specific menu for a variety of conditions like embryo development, intense exercise, healing from an injury, or growing taller. For each condition there is a specific menu designed to respond to that situation, a process known as gene expression. A comparison of gene expression scenarios reveals that all genes do not express themselves in the same way. Some processes occur on a continuous basis, while others are expressed by particular cell types. The program stresses that synchronization is important to cell expression when genetic material must also be regulated.

    Length: 00:02:36
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Gene Expression - Dna & Rna

    Every cell in a living organism contains instructions for every structure (protein) and process in the body. These instructions are contained in DNA. The program describes the two major stages in gene expression, transcription and translation, and the critical importance of protein synthesis. It describes how proteins are involved in virtually all cell functions including transport, storage, movement, support and intercellular communications. Further discussion reveals that gene expression usually plays out as an extraordinarily well orchestrated series of biochemical steps, but sometimes things go wrong.

    Length: 00:02:19
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Homeostasis

    The program looks at the concept of balance and trying to maintain a state of dynamic equilibrium as conditions change in human bodies. This quest to achieve and maintain balance is part of everyday experience for everyone and is called homeostasis. This basic principal of maintaining balance internally and externally is examined using two comparisons to help understand how it works. They are the sport of slack lining and the operation of the home furnace. The signals of these operations (receptor, stimulus, sensory pathway, integrating center, and effector) and how similar signals exist in the human body are discussed. The examples of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are used to explain how the body is constantly trying to restore and maintain its equilibrium as a result of consequences or symptoms which might adversely affect health.

    Length: 00:06:06
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • How Enzymes Catalyze Reactions

    Graphical modeling is used to demonstrate how enzymes catalyze reactions in substrates. The challenges enzymes face in catalyzing chemical reactions are described. A lock and key model is used to demonstrate the fit that is necessary to bind an enzyme's active site and its substrate. The induced fit model describes an enzyme as a flexible structure that can be modified as the substrate interacts with it. The program concludes with an explanation of how the ability of an enzyme to function efficiently can be affected by various factors, including temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration and molecule activators and inhibitors.

    Length: 00:04:00
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Intro to the Muscular System

    This introduction explores the similarities and differences between muscle types. It looks at the three broad categories of muscle tissues: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac, and their voluntary or involuntary functions. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles stimulated to contract by electrical impulses from the nervous system. The smooth and cardiac muscles are under the involuntary control of the nervous and endocrine systems. The comparison continues with an examination of the structural design of each muscle type. Terms such as neuromuscular junctions, neurotransmitters, actin and myosin filaments, are discussed.

    Length: 00:07:51
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Intro to the Nervous System

    In this overview, an analogy is made between the components and operations of a personal computer, and the components and operations performed by the central nervous system. The computer has its PCU (the brain or control center), input, output, and various cables (communications) linking its parts. The central nervous system has the brain which functions as a control center, and the spinal cord which serves as the main communications throughway. It's noted that the computer is a great multi-tasking system but the nervous system is even more impressive.

    Length: 00:04:07
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Levels of Structural Organization

    The first episode introduces the human body as one of nature's most amazing and unique creations. Through the use of a comparative analogy of the structure of the human body and a contemporary building, the program highlights how similar their structures and inter-related elements are. Beginning with the framework structures, the examination moves on to the electrical communication systems and how they all work together. A brief look at the body's levels of structural organizations are highlighted graphically beginning with the chemical level, then the cellular level, next the tissue level, and finally the organ level. This shows how the components are working together for a common purpose and that the sum total is homeostasis.

    Length: 00:03:57
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Membrane Transport

    The program introduces membrane transport, focusing on selective permeability. Key terms such as solution, solvent, solutes, intracellular fluid, and interstitial fluid are introduced. The episode shows how the cell membrane permits certain substances to flow through while blocking others, demonstrating that the manner in which molecules cross the cell membrane depends on their size, chemistry, and if extra energy needed.

    Length: 00:02:44
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Molecules, Compounds, and Macromolecules

    The formation of molecules and compounds is presented, including the difference between them. It is shown that while atoms bind to form molecules, if more than one element is involved, a compound results. The structure and four basic types of macromolecules, also called polymers, and their importance to life are described.

    Length: 00:03:29
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Movements of Snyovial Joints

    The program demonstrates and describes the movements of synovial joints, the most common joints in the human body. These joints are shown to be capable of a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction, opposition, elevation, depression, supination, pronation, inversion, eversion, plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, protraction, retraction and excursion.

    Length: 00:03:23
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Muscle Twitch Properties

    Defines twitches as very brief contractions in response to a single stimulus. Every twitch has three distinct phases: the latent period, the period of contraction, and the period of relaxation. Terms such as Summation, Incomplete Tetanus, Complete Tetanus, and Treppe are explained.

    Length: 00:02:37
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Muscular Dystrophy

    In this overview, Muscular Dystrophy or MD is described as a group of hereditary diseases characterized by progressive damage and weakness of facial, limb, and heart muscles. Sometimes even the brain is affected. The numerous forms of MD are caused by faulty or insufficient amounts of dystrophin, a protein involved in maintaining the integrity of muscles. Current research and treatment options are described, with the understanding that more than 50,000 Americans are affected by the disease.

    Length: 00:06:20
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Nervous System Case Study: Multiple Sclerosis

    This case study of multiple sclerosis (MS) shows that it is an autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system. The disease targets not only the myelin sheath that surrounds the cell's axons, but the axons themselves. Typical inflammatory and degenerative symptoms are identified. The segment profiles a patient who was diagnosed with MS at the age of 15. The progress of her disease is followed over a period of several years and includes an examination of the disease's impact on her life. With the goal of improving quality of life, treatment and rehabilitation methods are discussed. The program ends with a summary of current research that may one day lead to a cure.

    Length: 00:08:13
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Neural Transmission

    The focus of this episode is on the function of a nerve cell or neuron, and its ability to transmit information within the nervous system. The neuron's electrical and chemical signaling is called neural transmission. Neural activation is triggered by pressure, heat, light or chemical information from other cells. Types of stimulation are considered as are types of neurons: sensory, motor, and interneurons.

    Length: 00:04:15
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Neuromuscular Junctions

    This episode demonstrates how the central nervous system controls skeletal muscle contractions. During the process, the brain emits signals called action potentials which travel through the nervous system to the motor neurons located at a neuromuscular junction. The entire process is shown to involve a number of very precise, carefully orchestrated steps

    Length: 00:01:58
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Organization of the Nervous System

    This episode describes the three step process the nervous system performs every day when it provides sensory input, integration, and motor output. Because the nervous system does so much and has so many parts, it is classified in two ways. Structurally it is described as having two branches, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Functionally, its two divisions are sensory/afferent and motor/efferent, further divided into voluntary and involuntary nervous systems.

    Length: 00:04:22
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Overview of Tissues

    This episode introduces the four types of tissue found in the human body: epithelial, muscle, connective and nerve tissue. The developmental origin of these tissues in fetal layers is described. Segments explain the location and functions of each of the tissue types. An analogy is drawn between the structure, support, form, and function of a building and the four kinds of tissue found in the human body.

    Length: 00:03:43
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Passive Transport Processes

    Selective permeability is reviewed, and then the passive transport process is introduced. The process is defined as one in which some molecules pass through the cell membrane without needing additional energy. Different forms of diffusion are also described. These include simple, facilitated, osmosis, and filtration. Examples of water and salt being combined increase understanding.

    Length: 00:03:16
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Peripheral Nervous System: Autonomic

    This program describes the autonomic nervous system, the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for activities that are carried out without conscious effort. This system keeps the body running smoothly, in most cases automatically. Examples include keeping the heart beating, digesting food, and cooling down after strenuous exercise. Two sub-systems, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems, are also described. Scenarios are provided to illustrate the differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The structural and functional arrangements of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are explored in detail, highlighting the differences in pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic axons. The program ends by demonstrating how most organs of the body are enervated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system, with either excitatory (sympathetic) or inhibitory (parasympathetic) actions.

    Length: 00:07:34
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Peripheral Nervous System: Somatic

    This program examines the somatic nervous system (SNS) - the part of the peripheral nervous system that allows the brain to consciously monitor environmental stimuli and regulate response activities. The SNS contains two major types of neurons, sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). These neurons and their operations in transmitting information to and from the brain are described in some detail. The program ends with an examination of involuntary reflex arcs, in which a stimulus and response are transmitted via the spinal cord without activity in the brain, a process that allows for the fastest response.

    Length: 00:04:48
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Pigment and Skin Color

    This episode describes the three pigments that contribute to skin color: melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. There is a particular focus on melanin, the primary determinant of color: its types, production and function. Melanin's sun-protective qualities are also described. Although not produced in the skin, carotene and hemoglobin are shown to be pigments that affect skin color.

    Length: 00:04:37
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Pigment Related Skin Problems

    Although melanin plays a key role in protecting the skin against ultraviolet radiation, there are many pigment-related skin problems that can develop, including skin cancer. This episode discusses malignant melanoma, its treatment and prognosis. It also describes the characteristics of the three most common pigment-related skin issues: melisma, vitiligo, and albinism. Topics include causes and treatments for these skin disorders.

    Length: 00:06:56
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Salts and Other Inorganic Compounds

    Inorganic compounds commonly found in the body, focusing primarily on salts, are presented. Examples are provided of the simple structure of inorganic compounds. Both organic and inorganic salts and their functions in the human body are discussed. The importance of salt balance in the body is explained, as is the requirement for salts in electrical signaling in neurons and muscle cells as well as for absorption in the digestive tract. The process by which salts dissociate into ions, collectively termed electrolytes, is described. The program concludes by describing the importance of these electrolytes in the body.

    Length: 00:02:21
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Signal Transduction

    The program describes the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior signals which allow for changes to its environment. In other words, it depicts a signal pathway by which a cell moves a signal or a stimulus from one side of the cell to another, through a series of biochemical reactions. The process is detailed with colorful graphics and the use of everyday terms matched to the appropriate technical term. The point is made that a signal rarely causes a simple direct chemical change inside the cell, instead the signal sets off a chain of events that may involve several steps.

    Length: 00:03:50
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism

    This episode explores the role of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, in muscle contraction. The skeletal muscles are the body's mechanism for powering movement, with ATP being the fuel required to enable muscles to contract. ATP formed by the cell's mitochondria is a just-in-time energy supply not a storehouse. Three metabolic systems that provide ATP are introduced: Phosphagen, Anaerobic, and Aerobic systems. The ATP connection is considered from the point of view of its duration, its source, and the presence of oxygen and lactic acid in each process.

    Length: 00:06:07
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Skeletal System Functions: Movement

    The program describes the process of bodily movement, beginning with the nervous system signaling skeletal muscles to contract, then skeletal muscles reacting by pulling the bone to create movement. The joint provides flexibility, allowing the bone to move. Joint categories and sub-categories are identified by range of movement. The program ends by explaining how other parts of the skeletal system, ligaments and tendons, are also key players in allowing movement.

    Length: 00:05:35
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Skeletal System Functions: Storage and Production

    The program demonstrates that in addition to support and protection, the skeletal system provides hematopoiesis (blood cell production) and the storage of essential minerals, such as phosphorus and calcium. The process of hematopoiesis is described in some detail. The program concludes by explaining that, in addition to minerals, the skeletal system also stores chemical energy in the fat cells contained in the yellow bone marrow.

    Length: 00:04:15
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Skeletal System Functions: Support and Protection

    To explain the system's support and protection functions, the program compares the skeletal system to the framework of a building. The components of the skeletal system are identified. The importance of the support functions are explained, as are the equally important functions of protecting critical parts of the body.

    Length: 00:01:53
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Skin and Aging

    The program explores changes in skin and other elements of the integumentary system over time, tracing the typical succession of changes decade by decade. It highlights two or three changes normally associated with each decade beginning with the 20s. Although these changes are internal and largely unavoidable, external and behavioral factors affecting the skin's condition are also discussed.

    Length: 00:04:27
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Spinal Cord Structure and Function

    The program begins by drawing an analogy between an old-fashioned telephone operator routing calls, and the spinal cord transmitting electrical information between the brain and the rest of the body. The structure of the spinal cord is described in detail as are the two major functions of the spinal cord: carrying information between the brain and the rest of the body, and coordinating reflexes which do not require conscious thought. Additionally, the means of transmission through afferent and efferent nerves is described. Demonstrations include the reactions of monosynaptic reflex arcs, and sensory neurons synapsing directly with motor neurons within the spinal cord. The spinal cord is divided into specific neurological segments, each with its own set of functions, which are described in the final part of the program.

    Length: 00:05:30
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Structure of Bone

    This episode demonstrates that bone is the ultimate bio-material because it is light, strong, capable of adapting to diverse functional demands, and able to repair itself. Its structure is described as having the strength and resiliency of reinforced concrete. The spongy, mesh-like inner layer of bone provides resiliency while the minerals that surround this layer, including calcium and phosphorus, provide strength. Osteons, or Haversion systems, which make up compact bone, are described in detail. The interior of the bone, trabecular bone, is also examined. The program ends with a description of three types of cells that play an important role in ongoing bone remodeling: osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes

    Length: 00:05:39
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Tissue Repair, Regeneration and Engineering

    The program explores the ability of tissue to repair and regenerate itself. The challenges of tissue repair via messages from the central nervous system are explored. Tissue engineering, a growing focus in the scientific community, is introduced as a way to overcome the limitations in the human body's ability to repair and regenerate tissue. The episode also discusses the use of stem cells in tissue engineering, and reasons for the success of this procedure. Successful tissue engineering in the treatment of congenital bladder dysfunction is presented as an example of how investigators have been able to learn about processes involved in developing new tissues. The program concludes by highlighting the major role stem cells are likely to play in this field in the future.

    Length: 00:10:10
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Transport Mechanisms Other Than Passive Or Active

    This episode reviews the processes of selective permeability, passive transport using diffusion, and active transport. It points out that there are times when neither passive nor active transport will suffice, for example when molecules are too large or when they must be transported rapidly and in large numbers. The alternative, vesicular transport is discussed with an outline of its two main components, endocytosis and exocytosis.

    Length: 00:04:20
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • Types of Skeletal Fibers

    Today, muscle fibers are more commonly categorized according to their twitch capabilities than by their color. A simple analogy of the Thanksgiving turkey's muscles of white or fast, and dark or slow, sets the scene for further explanations. Twitches are seen as unconscious contractions. Two types of twitch fibers, type one and type two, are compared and contrasted in relation to their location in the body, use of oxygen, resistance to fatigue, rate of contraction and other details.

    Length: 00:05:37
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020
  • What Is Skin, and Why Do We Need It?

    This episode describes skin as the largest of all human organs, and the body's first line of defense against infection, changes of temperature, and other threats to homeostasis. It provides an in-depth presentation of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous (hypodermis) layers of our body's outer covering.

    Length: 00:04:07
    Usage rights: 7/1/2015 to 6/30/2020

Availability:

UEN-TV

Current UEN-TV programs may be recorded for educational use. For exact broadcast dates and times of school day programs as well as evening and weekend programs please visit one of the following links: